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On-line Research and Resources Addressing Interpersonal Violence
The Attorney General’s National Task Force on Children Exposed to Violence has relased report Defending Childhood
Executive Summary | Full Report
This study focuses on the experiences of child complainants of sexual abuse across three jurisdictions: Queensland , New South Wales and Western Australia . Specifically, the research examines the experiences of child complainants in the criminal justice system as well as the consequences of their involvement in the process. In-depth interviews with children are combined with data gathered from parents, crown prosecutors, defense lawyers, court support personnel and members of the judiciary. On the individual level, the discussion analyses the significant processes in the criminal justice process for child complainants. On the systemic level, the implications for legislators and legal practitioners is presented. From a theoretical perspective, the report examines why decades of reform have achieved limited gains for Australian children, and why the criminal justice system remains the legally sanctioned context for the abuse of children.
Lists how each state in the U.S. defines of child abuse and neglect. The compendia of civil state laws to help legal and non-legal professionals in the analysis, formulation, and implementation of child protection and child welfare legislation. The Compendia (previously titled State Statutes Elements) contain citations and text of key civil statutes pertaining to child maltreatment, child welfare, and domestic violence. The Compendia are intended as research tools and do not substitute for the official version of any statute.
- The use of prostitution by runaway and thrownaway children to provide for their subsistence needs
- The presence of pre-existing adult prostitution markets in the communities where large numbers of street youth are concentrated
- Prior history of child sexual abuse and child sexual assault
- The presence of large numbers of unattached and transient males in communities–including military personnel, truckers, conventioneers, sex tourists, among others
- For some girls, membership in gangs
- The promotion of juvenile prostitution by parents, older sib-lings and boy friends
- The recruitment of children by organized crime units for prostitution; and, increasingly
- Illegal trafficking of children for sexual purposes to the U.S. from developing countries located in Asia, Africa, Central and South America, and Central and Eastern Europe.
- Between 244,000 and 325,000 American children and youth are “at risk” each year of becoming victims of sexual exploitation, including as victims of commercial sexual exploitation (e.g., child pornography, juvenile prostitution, and trafficking in children for sexual purposes)
- As a group, sexually exploited children are quite heterogeneous and include children living in their own homes as well as children who are runaways and thrownaways
- Sexual exploiters consist mostly of men, but some women and juveniles (including older siblings) also sexually exploit children
- The major groups of sexual exploiters of children include
- Family members and acquaintances
- Transient males including military personnel, truck drivers, seasonal workers, conventioneers and sex tourists, among others
- “Opportunistic” exploiters, i.e., per-sons who will sexually abuse whoever is available for sex including children, but who may sub-sequently focus on children
- Other juveniles
- Criminal networks are actively involved in the sexual exploitation of children and profit signifi-cantly from that exploitation
- Substantial numbers of foreign children are trafficked into the U.S. for sexual purposes
- Significant numbers of American youth also are trafficked for sexual purposes across the U.S. and, in some cases, to other economically advanced countries.
Through a national survey of adolescents, researchers examined the prevalence of sexual assault, physical assault, physically abusive punishment, and witnessing an act of violence and subsequent effects on mental health, substance use, and delinquent behavior problems. Victimization was linked to a wide range of mental health problems and delinquent behaviors. Negative outcomes in victims of sexual assault were three to five times the rates observed in nonvictims.
Abstract: This study demonstrates a direct path from child maltreatment to juvenile offending. The study focuses on the 41,700 children born in Queensland in 1983. It finds that about 10% of these children came into contact with the Department of Families by the time they were 17 years old because of a child protection matter. About 5% of those in the cohort had a court appearance for a proven offence. Many, but not all, of these children fitted into both categories (that is, coming into contact with the Department as well as having a court appearance).
The authors examine 11 predictive factors for youth offending, and find that children who suffer maltreatment are more likely to offend. Physical abuse and neglect are significant predictive factors, but sexual and emotional abuse are not.
The authors conclude that preventing child maltreatment is likely to result in a large decrease in juvenile offending. “By directing attention to those children who are maltreated and ensuring that the maltreatment is not repeated, significant benefits in crime reduction … can be … obtained”
These guidelines explain what is known about 24 treatment approaches in three categories (child-focused; family-focused; and offender- focused). Each treatment approach includes a description of its theoretical basis, components, empirical support, and reference materials. In addition, a classification system that rates each treatment helps practitioners easily find out which treatments are strongly supported, generally accepted, or viewed as questionable. A classification score ranging from 1 (well-supported, efficacious treatment) to 6 (concerning treatment) reflects the level of support for each approach.
Prevent Child Abuse America. PDF format
This report was compiled using government statistics by Prevent Child Abuse America . Innumerable scientific studies have documented the link between the abuse and neglect of children and a wide range of medical, emotional, psychological and behavioral disorders. For example, abused and neglected children are more likely to suffer from depression, alcoholism, drug abuse and severe obesity. They are also more likely to require special education in school and to become juvenile delinquents and adult criminals. This report represents the first attempt to document the nationwide costs resulting from abuse and neglect. These costs can be placed in one of two categories: direct (those costs associated with the immediate needs of abused or neglected children) and indirect (those costs associated with the long-term and/or secondary effects of child abuse and neglect).
Note: a book is available that also examines the cost of child maltreatment to society.
The Cost of Child Maltreatment: Who Pays? We All Do. K. Franey, R. Geffner, R. Falconer, eds. FVSAI Publications, 2001. 243 pp. Price $28